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对雨洪资源利用的再认识

胡庆芳 王银堂 邓鹏鑫 李伶杰 王磊之 云兆得

胡庆芳,王银堂,邓鹏鑫,等. 对雨洪资源利用的再认识[J]. 水利水运工程学报. doi:  10.12170/20220216004
引用本文: 胡庆芳,王银堂,邓鹏鑫,等. 对雨洪资源利用的再认识[J]. 水利水运工程学报. doi:  10.12170/20220216004
(HU Qingfang, WANG Yintang, DENG Pengxin, et al. Reunderstanding on rain and flood resources utilization[J]. Hydro-Science and Engineering(in Chinese)) doi:  10.12170/20220216004
Citation: (HU Qingfang, WANG Yintang, DENG Pengxin, et al. Reunderstanding on rain and flood resources utilization[J]. Hydro-Science and Engineering(in Chinese)) doi:  10.12170/20220216004

对雨洪资源利用的再认识

doi: 10.12170/20220216004
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400900)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡庆芳(1981—),男,湖南宁乡人,正高级工程师,博士,主要从事水文遥感、防洪与水资源规划等研究。E-mail:hqf_work@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TV121

Reunderstanding on rain and flood resources utilization

  • 摘要: 雨水和洪水是宝贵的自然资源,雨洪资源利用是具有悠久历史的重要水资源开发利用方式。近年来雨洪资源利用的实用性技术获得了蓬勃发展,但对其基本概念尚存在明显的认识误区,相关概念和术语的不规范使用给研究和实践带来了混乱。鉴于此,从有关历史和现实情况出发,根据水文学基本理论,对雨洪资源利用进行了再认识,明确了雨水、洪水的自然资源和水资源属性,阐明了雨水资源利用和洪水资源利用的基本内涵和定义,辨析了雨水资源利用和洪水资源利用之间的关系,并澄清了“雨水资源化”、“洪水资源化”等术语的规范性。对雨洪资源的思考和认识有助于夯实雨洪资源安全高效利用的理论基础,为科学开展雨洪资源利用评价、规划和技术创新及应用创造了条件。
  • 表  1  农村雨水利用和城市雨水利用的比较

    Table  1.   The comparison of rain resources utilization between urban and rural

    利用方式主要利用目标技术原理具体措施技术模式
    农村雨水
    利用
    农业生产、水土保持和居民生活饮水保障等 改变微地形,强化地表拦截滞留能力;改变地表覆盖性质,强化透水、容水和保水性质,就地利用;强化雨水富集、调蓄和水质处理,集蓄利用 营造梯田、垄沟等;植树种草;采用农膜、秸秆、沙石等农田覆盖;投放土壤增渗和保水制剂;建设庭院和道路等集流面和坑塘、水窖等集雨设施;开发雨水水质处理装备 与农村生态保护、农业生产和居民生活紧密结合,形成了小流域水土保持和低成本、经济型农田雨水就地利用和补充灌溉模式、居民生活饮用水雨水集蓄-净化利用模式
    城市雨水
    利用
    城市内涝防治、地表径流污染控制、景观生态、市政杂用等 优化城市用地平面和竖向控制,强化地表径流源头控制和渗滤净化;提高雨水收集能力;扩大雨水滞蓄和行泄能力 建设透水铺装、低势绿地、雨水花园等低影响开发设施;提升雨水管渠及调节池等设施标准;保护和扩大城市内河、湖泊、湿地等多功能调蓄水体;打造深层排水系统 与城市空间管控、排水防涝、景观园林、河湖治理等融合,形成了灰绿结合、源头-过程-末端相结合的全过程雨水管理模式
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  洪水资源利用技术方式原理与措施

    Table  2.   The principles and measures of flood resources utilization ways

    类型主要目标技术原理具体措施技术模式
    地表利用 优化洪水期和枯水期河道内外经济社会和生态环境用水配置,提升河湖水资源利用综合效益 利用地表蓄洪、分洪、行洪、挡洪等设施和河湖湿地空间,调蓄、迟滞、疏导和引调河网洪水径流 水库、湖泊、湿地拦蓄;蓄滞洪区分滞;河口蓄淡水库避咸蓄淡;河网槽蓄;河渠疏导和引调 水库汛限水位分期或动态控制;蓄滞洪区分区分类运用;工程群联合调度
    地表-地下
    联合利用
    将洪水分散或集中回补至地下含水层,提供地下水源或修复地下水超采、防治海水入侵 在延缓、分散或改变洪水运动路径基础上,将洪水回补至地下储水空间或渗滤后回归至地表 利用自然渗漏带或人工回灌设施将洪水回补至天然含水层或地下水库 洪水地下回补、渗滤-地表回归再利用
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  雨水资源利用和洪水资源利用的比较

    Table  3.   Comparison of rain resources utilization and flood resources utilization

    比较项目雨水利用洪水利用
    利用对象 陆域分散性降雨和坡面径流 河网集中性的高水位、大流量径流
    时间阶段 产流和坡面汇流阶段 河网汇流阶段
    空间单元 小流域及排水分区,以陆域为主 集水流域,以水域为主
    技术原理 通过改变下垫面条件或设置小微收集存储设施调节雨水分配和运动过程 通过水利设施或自然空间拦蓄、迟滞、疏导和回补洪水,降低洪水集中性和冲击性
    利用目标 水土保持、农业生产和农村饮用水保障;城市防涝和径流污染
    控制
    优化洪水期和枯水期河道内外经济社会和生态环境用水配置
    利用措施 下垫面调整和小微型雨水集蓄设施 水利工程设施及调度管理等非工程性措施
    利用规模 单项工程规模小,累积效应不容忽视 单项工程即可达到较大规模
    约束因素 地形、土壤、植被和降雨条件、雨水集蓄设施、排水防涝能力 防洪工程结构可靠性、河库及蓄滞洪区等调控能力、河道内必要生产和生态需水量
    下载: 导出CSV
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