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Application and mechanism of in-situ solidification technology to treat shallow soft soil
XU Liang, TANG Tongzhi, BAI Lanlan, HONG Lei, ZHOU Jiuyang
 doi: 10.12170/20200618003
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 949KB](0)
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In-situ curing is a shallow soft soil treatment technology that has been gradually applied in recent years. In this paper, through indoor and field experiments, the application of in-situ solidification in the treatment of river pond sludge and the strengthening mechanism were studied. The research shows that the combination of strong stirring heads for the in-situ improvement and solidification of river pond sludge can improve the improved sludge. Further processes such as roadbed filling are carried out directly on the roof to realize the on-site resource utilization of the sludge, and at the same time reduce the amount of external spoil and borrow the earth, which is conducive to environmental protection and cost saving. The strengthening mechanism shows that the cement distribution in the solidified soil treated by the powerful mixing head is more uniform than that of the conventional method, so that under the same cement content, higher strength can be obtained.
Application of PFMA in safety monitoring of concrete face rockfill dams
FENG Longhai, WANG Shijun, GU Yancang, WU Yunxing
 doi: 10.12170/20201120001
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 557KB](0)
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With the development of dam risk management concept, potential failure mode analysis (PFMA) method is becoming more and more widely used. The design of dam safety monitoring based on traditional engineering safety concept is lack of pertinence to hidden dangers. Combining failure mode analysis with dam safety monitoring can improve the effectiveness and pertinence of monitoring.In this paper, the structural characteristics and common diseases of concrete face rockfill dam are studied, and the possible failure modes of concrete face rockfill dam are proposed by use of PFMA method, and the monitoring items and key parts under each failure mode are analyzed. Improvement measures for concrete face rockfill dam monitoring system are put forward with a view to the PFMA method. The results show that the dam safety monitoring based on the analysis of potential failure mode has strong pertinence and can improve the monitoring efficiency and reliability. According to historical dam break data, dam structure, operation environment and operation management data, different dam break modes should be studied and summarized, and dam safety monitoring technology based on failure mode should be actively promoted.
Influence of grain composition and thickness of filter layer on seepage characteristics of dam
CAI Shixing, ZHU Haibo, MA Donghe, WANG Changming, HAN Songling
 doi: 10.12170/2020082501
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 1494KB](1)
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The grain size composition and thickness of filter layer and its structure have significant influence on the seepage characteristics of dam. For a clay core dam project, the particle gradation of filter material on both sides of the clay core (upper and lower cladding lines) was designed, and the particle gradation of the material was prepared. Four groups of seepage deformation tests were carried out, and the critical hydraulic gradient, permeability coefficient and seepage failure types of the test materials were obtained. The double-layer filter structure is designed according to the test results. Eleven combinations of the thickness of the two-layer filter material (the thickness vary from 0.5 m to 2.5 m), the seepage characteristics of the dam are analyzed by finite element method. The results show as follows: (1) The grain size of the first filter is fine, there is little influence on permeability coefficient of the particle size in the inclusion line of soil material, the influence on critical hydraulic gradient and failure gradient is large, and the form of seepage failure is changed from soil flow to piping; the second filter sand gravel particles are coarse, and the content of fine particles below 5 mm is very small, the permeability characteristic is determined by the content of coarse grain material, which is transitional failure. (2) When the total thickness of the filters is invariant (3 m), the change of the thickness combination and particle size of the two filters has little effect on the seepage per unit width and the height of the overflow point of the core. The first filter thickness increases from 0.5 m to 2.5 m, the core and the filter material exit gradient nonlinear growth. The exit gradient of the first filter increased by 92.7%, and second filter increased by 70% respectively. The particle size change of the first filter is less than that of the second filter. (3) The thickness of the first filter is suggested to be 1.0~1.5 m, the corresponding thickness of the second filter is 1.5~2.0 m; and the particle size selection of both layers of filter material is close to the lower envelope line, and the coarse particle size is the best.
Analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration changes and meteorological factors in Heilongjiang Province
WANG Zilong, LIU Ying, JIANG Qiuxiang, LI Shiqiang, CHAI Xun, HE Xin
 doi: 10.12170/20200831003
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 1424KB](0)
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To explore the temporal and spatial variation of reference crop evapotranspiration and the change of influencing factors in mid-latitude cold regions, the response relationship between reference crop evapotranspiration and various meteorological factors was revealed. Based on the data of 34 standard meteorological stations in Heilongjiang Province, daily reference crop evapotranspiration was calculated by the Penman-Monteith formula. Using the methods of cumulative departure curve, climate tendency rate, trend analysis and mutation test (Mann-Kendall test), and Hurst exponent, the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of reference crop evapotranspiration in Heilongjiang Province and the response relationship between diversified key meteorologic factors were analyzed, and the leading causes for the dissimilitude identified. The results show that the average reference crop evapotranspiration in Heilongjiang Province from 1990 to 2019 exhibited a moderating trend as a whole; the relative humidity was the main meteorological factor affecting evapotranspiration of reference crops in spring, while the average temperature in winter was that leading to the variation of reference crop evapotranspiration. In the entire province, the high evapotranspiration areas are concentrated in the southwest, with Tailai as the center, while the low evapotranspiration areas are concentrated in the northwest, with Huzhong as the center. The main meteorological factors that affect reference crop evapotranspiration changes in the southern region of Heilongjiang Province were mean wind speed, maximum air temperature, and minimum air temperature. The main meteorological factor that affects the change of reference crop evapotranspiration in the northern region was relative humidity, which refers to the ratio of the vapor pressure of water in the air to the saturated vapor pressure of water at the same temperature and pressure. The prediction of a future variation trend proved that the Hurst exponent in Heilongjiang Province was between 0.60 and 0.69, indicating that the future change of reference crop evapotranspiration would be similar to the same present downward trend as well as a certain degree of sustainability.
Stability analysis of temporary dam constructed by fabricated rapid closure devices
LIU Junyi, JIAO Jingwei, XIE Chaoyong, MA Dongdong, SHI Jianming
 doi: 10.12170/20200327001
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 5397KB](0)
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A three-dimensional numerical model of the dam is established based on the CFD software Fluent to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the assembled quick closure devices to address the dyke breach issue in flood season. After verifying the reliability of the numerical method through relevant model test data, the horizontal current force and overturning moment acted on the dam under different working conditions are obtained. The pertinent results indicate that the horizontal current force goes up with the increase of the flow velocity, width and depth of the breach. The added rows of the fabricated rapid closure devices would make the current force slightly enlarge. In addition, the larger the flow velocity is, the more obvious the effect is. The overturning moment caused by the flow force, however, has little effect on the stability of the dam.
Research on the edge effect for variable voltage RCM test of concrete
CHEN Junwu, YANG Lüfeng, ZHAO Jiaqi, KANG Hao
 doi: 10.12170/20200331005
[Abstract](15) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 1080KB](0)
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The edge effect, resulted from possible leakage in RCM test, and causing the chloride diffusion depth in the edge part of concrete specimen greater than that in the central part, was investigated systematically to analyze its influence, on the chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete based on statistical analysis of the RCM test data of the concrete specimen, while the revised calculation expression of the diffusion coefficient was developed in this paper. Firstly, variable voltage RCM tests were performed on 74 sets of concrete specimens. Secondly, the normalized depth was defined for chloride diffusion at observation points along the axial section of the specimen. Then the influence of edge effect on the diffusion depth and diffusion coefficient of chloride ion was quantitatively analyzed based on the results of variable voltage RCM test. Finally, the correlation between the diffusion coefficient for the center part of axial section of the specimen and that for the whole section were quantitatively investigated, which provides a basis to calibrate the chloride diffusion coefficient resulted by existing experimental technique. Results show that the influence range of edge effect on 100 mm diameter cylindrical concrete specimen is from the outer edge of specimen to the depth of 20 mm inside specimen, while the deviation of chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete increases due to the edge effect in the variable voltage RCM test, hence the accuracy of the tested chloride diffusion coefficient can be improved by obviation of the edge effect on the chloride diffusion depth in concrete specimen. RCM test, hence the accuracy of the tested chloride diffusion coefficient can be improved by obviation of the edge effect on the chloride diffusion depth in concrete specimen.
Gravity based subtractive set pair potential method for dynamic evaluation of water resources carrying capacity
JIN Juliang, LIU Xin, ZHOU Rongxing, ZHANG Haoyu, NING Shaowei, HE Jun, CUI Yi
 doi: 10.12170/20200402002
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 683KB](0)
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In order to dynamically analyze the change of water resources carrying capacity and accurately identify the vulnerable indexes, the idea of universal gravitation and damping coefficient is used for reference to construct gravity based subtractive set pair potential, which can reflect the relation and situation of set pair events. Method of gravity based subtractive set pair potential was applied to dynamic analysis of the water resources carrying capacity evaluation, and compared with the existing subtractive set pair potential. The results show that the dynamic analysis of the water resources carrying capacity of Anhui province by the gravity based subtractive set pair potential and the comparison of the situation analysis of subtractive set pair potential are consistent, and the correlation coefficient between the two kinds of set pair situation is close to 1.0; According to the gravity based subtractive set pair potential, the indexes of vegetation coverage rate, population density, sewage discharge reaching the standard, water quality reaching the standard and ecological water use rate in the water functional area in 2005-2015 are the vulnerability indexes of water resources carrying capacity evaluation in Anhui province, which should be mainly controlled. And other indicators need to be improved. Therefore, the gravity based subtractive set pair potential is feasible for the dynamic evaluation and diagnosis of water resources carrying capacity in Anhui province; gravity based subtractive set pair potential has strong potential interpretation, simple calculation, practical results and strong applicability. It provides a new way for judging the current condition and development trend of the set pair events, and has application prospect in system dynamic analysis and evaluation.
Selective adsorption of Cr (VI) on ion-imprinted chitosan gel microspheres
CAI Weicheng, GUO Mulin
 doi: 10.12170/20200326002
[Abstract](28) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 1255KB](0)
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At present, the composition of water environmental pollutants is complex, and it is difficult to classify and remove the heavy metal pollutants and recycle them using the common chemical precipitation method, resulting in a large number of hazardous wastes that pollute the environment and require secondary treatment. The substrate chitosan gel microspheres were modified through ion-imprinted technology to synthesis of CTS-IGB, and subsequently employed as adsorbents for Cr (VI) removal selectively from single Cr (VI) solutions and simulated electroplating wastewaters. The results indicated that the Cr (VI) adsorption capacity of CTS-IGB reached 37.4 mg/g and 44.3 mg/g in single Cr (VI) solution and simulated electroplating wastewaters, respectively, when the pH was 3 and temperature was kept at 20 ℃. And the Semi-saturated time were 5.3 minutes and 5.6 minutes, respectively. The experimental Cr (VI) adsorption data were well agreed with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Freundlich isotherm model can best describe the equilibrium data of Cr (VI) adsorption. The thermodynamics parameters indicated that Cr (VI) adsorption on CTS-IGB was spontaneous, thermodynamically favorable and exothermic, and decreased in random. Comparing with the pristine chitosan gel microspheres, the Cr (VI) selective adsorption coefficient of CTS-IGB were increased 32%~74% in the presence of coexisting ions. The CTS-IGB can be used as a potential adsorption material for the separation and recovery of Cr (VI) in polluted water environment.
Analysis of the influence of groundwater salt content on the effect of artificial freezing
YE Chao, LI Zhongchao, LIANG Rongzhu, XIAO Mingzhao, CAI Binghua, WU Wenbing
 doi: 10.12170/20200916001
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 17753KB](0)
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Currently, the research on artificial freezing method mainly focuses on the influence of groundwater seepage on freezing effect, while neglecting the salt content. As a result the mechanism of the effect of the groundwater salt content on freezing effect is not well understood. The salt content will change the thermodynamic properties of groundwater. If artificial freezing method is applied to temporarily conduct ground improvement in offshore area and the seabed, high salt content groundwater will affect the freezing effect. The aim of this paper is to study the mechanism of salt content of groundwater on freezing under double pipe freezing with utilizing COMSOL multi-field coupling software based on heat flow coupling model. The influences of freezing temperature field, freezing cycle time, distance of double pipes on freezing effect are especially analyzed. The results show that the freezing range of downstream is greatly affected by the increase of groundwater salt content, when the groundwater salt content exceeds 4%. The freezing time of the stage of pre-freezing increases with increasing the salt content of groundwater. While the freezing time of the stage of active freezing time gradually decreases, when the salt content of groundwater increases. When the frozen walls completely intersect and freezes, the temperature at the center of the frozen wall increases with the increase of the salt content of groundwater. The freezing effect will be magnified by the increase of frozen pipe distance.
Numerical simulation of dynamic shear characteristics of geomembrane interface and its application
CEN Weijun, SHENG Xixuan, WEN Langsheng
 doi: 10.12170/20200216002
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 2356KB](0)
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A series of cyclic shear tests were carried out on geomembrane-gravel interface using a modified large-scale shear device for soils. The hysteretic curves, backbone curves and damping ratio variation curves under different vertical pressures were obtained, and the corresponding mathematical models for shear stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were established. Further, the finite element numerical simulation of cyclic shear test was performed, and the results are in good agreement with the test data, which reasonably reflects the nonlinearity and hysteresis of cyclic shear. Finally, the proposed interface model was applied to the dynamic analysis of a geomembrane faced earth-rock dam. The calculated dynamic displacement, acceleration, dynamic principal tensile strain and dynamic principal tensile stress of geomembrane on the dam surface conform to the general rules, which indicates that the established interface model is correct and feasible for seismic analysis of geomembrane faced earth-rock dams.
Study on the water-based conductive anticorrosive coating by adding graphene applied on the surface of steel bar
SUN Hongyao, ZHANG Xingduo, DU Heng, XU Xuefeng, XU Ning, PU Pengpeng
 doi: 10.12170/20200331004
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 670KB](0)
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Epoxy coated reinforcement is one of the anti-corrosion measures for reinforced concrete. Due to the insulation characteristics of epoxy coating, electrochemical protection measures can not be used in the later maintenance of reinforced concrete structure, but this problem may be solved by using conductive anti-corrosion coating on the surface of reinforcement. Graphene is a nano-material with two-dimensional six carbon ring structure which has special properties of conductivity, corrosion resistance and impact resistance. In this paper, a conductive anticorrosive coating composed of water-based epoxy resin, graphene and other conductive fillers is studied. The shape of the conductive filler and the structure of the coating are characterized by electron microscope. The acting mechanisms of conductive and anticorrosive of the coating are analyzed, and the adhesion strength to concrete, cathodic disbonding resistance and bending resistance of the conductive coated reinforcement are tested. The results show that the conductivity of the coating can be less than the square resistance value of 3000 Ω / sq. the coating is alkali resistant while soaked in alkaline solution, and the coating does not blister or rust for more than 21 days in alkaline solution containing Cl, and does not blister for more than 21 days and does not rust for 14 days in Cl solution. The coating must be obtained by mixing different conductive fillers including graphene. The conductive mechanism may be that conducts electricity is obtained through the mutual contact among film graphene, flake graphite and spherical carbon black particles. The corrosion resistance of the coating is improved by using the film characteristics of graphene to extend the permeability channel of the medium. The bond strength of coated steel to concrete is about 15% lower than that of uncoated steel, and the result meet the requirements of national standard GB / T 25826—2010.
Forecast of ice dam in Mohe section of Heilongjiang River based on BP neural network
Song Chunshan, Lin Libang, Han Hongwei, Zhu Xinyu, Qiao Houqing
 doi: 10.12170/20200619002
[Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 896KB](0)
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Ice dams often occur in the upper reaches of the main stream of Heilongjiang River during the ice flood period. In order to predict the date of ice breakup and illuminate the flood process cause by ice dams in Mohe section of Heilongjiang River, this paper established an ice dam prediction model based on BP neural network through analyzing hydrometeorological data from 1960 to 2010 in Mohe section of Heilongjiang River, thereafter predicting the occurrence of ice dams and the date of ice breakup from 2011 to 2015 compared with the actual situation during this period, and compared with the actual situation. The research indicated that the model had high predictive accuracy; Moreover, the date of ice breakup and temperature normalization have stabilized based on the analysis of the 27-years temperature data, and ice breakup occurred in Mohe section of Heilongjiang River 15 days later after the temperature normalization; In addition, predicted the date of ice breakup from 2011 to 2015, the maximum error is 3 days. According to the hydrological information forecast specification, this prediction was a first-class prediction plan and the prediction results were qualified.
New trends of river channel evolution of the Yangtze Estuary under the influences of inflow and sediment variations and human activities
LIU Jie, CHENG Haifeng, HAN Lu, YE Tingting, WANG Zhenzhen
 doi: 10.12170/20200313001
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 8809KB](0)
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Based on a series of bathymetric data from 1998 to 2016, the new trends of river channel evolution of the Yangtze Estuary under the influences of inflow and sediment variations and human activities are studied. The results show that, in the past 20 years, the channel morphology of the Yangtze Estuary has been generally stable, but the downstream channel of the south branch has changed from net siltation to net scour, the channel of the estuary has been scoured and the volume has been expanded, and the length of the channel bar shoal outside the estuary has been shortened. The stability of channel morphology is promoted by the estuary beach enclosure, artificial protection of sandbank in the middle of the river and the flood control and peak elimination of the Three Gorges project. The decrease of sediment and estuary beach enclosure promote the transformation from net siltation to net scour in the downstream channel of the south branch. 2002 and 2003 were basically the time node of the transformation, which corresponds about 254 million tons of annual sediment transport. In the future, the fluvial sediment is likely to remain at a low level below the critical value for a long time, the Yangtze Estuary will maintain a slow erosion trend under the stable channel morphology.
Division of protection area of groundwater source area near Hutuo River based on MODFLOW mode
LENG Wenpeng, TAO Ya, SUN Ruohan, XIA Jianxin
 doi: 10.12170/20200611001
[Abstract](24) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 715KB](0)
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The division of underground drinking water source protection areas in scientific and reasonable ways can prevent water sources from being polluted in the most precise ways and with a lower economic cost. The MODFLOW model was utilized to develop and calculate a simulation of the groundwater flow field of the Hutuo River groundwater source area in Shijiazhuang City. By utilizing the MODPATH, the 100 days and 1 000 days reverse migration trajectories of the tracer particles when subjected to two different working conditions were calculated. The results were as follows. The average migration distances of the tracer particles at the end of 100 days under each of the two conditions were 0.54 km and 0.49 km; moreover, the average migration distance of each of the tracer particles at the end of 1000 days was 6.1 km and 5.6 km. Also, the simulation considered the change of the groundwater flow field under the condition of utilizing the infiltration field. By analyzing the calculation results of these two working conditions, the present study concluded that when the pumping wells inside of the water source area were generalized into the well groups, the specific trajectory geometry of the tracer particle reverse migration was more regular, and its migration distance was relatively short. At the same time, by considering the specific water supplement situation of the infiltration field, the whole infiltration field was included in the first-grade protection area as well.
Study on pore water pressure in concrete under water pressure environment
SUN Bao, PENG Gang, WANG Qianfeng, LIANG Hui
 doi: 10.12170/20190322001
[Abstract](280) [FullText HTML](143) [PDF 764KB](7)
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In order to study the change of pore water pressure of concrete in the water pressure environment, the experiment of pore water pressure change of the concrete under different water pressure was carried out. Based on the test data, the transient inversion numerical simulation of pore water pressure variation of concrete under different water pressure is carried out by using the finite element software ANSYS, and the results are compared with the experimental results. The research results show that under the action of water pressure, the change characteristics of pore water pressure of concrete can be divided into three stages: the rapid increase stage, the slow increase stage and the stabilization stage. When the concrete is under the water pressure of 0.875 MPa, the pore water pressure of the concrete reaches the value equal to the applied water pressure for more than 9 h. The variation law of pore water pressure of concrete is in good agreement with the experimental data by using the finite element software ANSYS for numerical simulation.
cover
cover
2021, (1): 0-0.  
[Abstract](9) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 2834KB](1)
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contents
2021, (1): 1-2.  
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 368KB](2)
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Monographic Studies of the Flood and Drought Disaster
A comparative study of flood control standards for small and medium-sized reservoirs and recommendation
ZOU Ying
2021, (1): 1-8.   doi: 10.12170/20200503003
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 788KB](5)
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Small and medium-sized reservoirs in China, numerous and widely distributed, play a vital role in our lives. However, it should be recognized that in addition to providing economic, social, and ecological benefits, they can also be a source of risk to the downstream areas with dam failure potentially resulting in unacceptable loss of lives and damage to properties. This paper compares the guidelines for dam classification and selection of inflow design flood in the United States, and points out that the flood control standards for small and medium-sized reservoirs are relatively low in the relevant design specifications in China, which is not suitable for the current level of economic and social development in China. Then, the necessity and feasibility of raising the flood control standards of small and medium-sized reservoirs with high potential hazard are analyzed and demonstrated, and the suggestions to enhance the flood control ability of small and medium-sized reservoirs with high potential hazard are put forward.
Research on the coupling coordinative degree in urban water-energy-food system
WANG Lichuan, HOU Baodeng, ZHOU Yuyan, CHEN Xiaoqing, WANG Xin, HUANG Ya
2021, (1): 9-17.   doi: 10.12170/20200217001
[Abstract](63) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 1005KB](2)
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Water, energy and food are important resources in China. These resources are interdependent and play an important role in the process of urban development. In addition, they are important basic resources for sustainable urban development. Taking Shanghai as an example, a comprehensive evaluation index system of the Shanghai water-energy-food (W-E-F) system is constructed. The entropy and coefficient of variation methods are used to weight the index. Then, a coupling coordination model is established to analyse the coordinated development level of the Shanghai W-E-F system and its subsystems. Next, the grey GM (1, 1) model is applied to predict the coupling coordination development trend of the Shanghai W-E-F system during the period from 2018 to 2025. The results show that the development of the W-E-F system in Shanghai is divided into two stages. The first stage occurs from 2003 to 2013, during which the W-E-F system shows a downward trend; the second stage occurs from 2013 to 2017, during which the W-E-F system shows a stable upward trend. The coupling coordination degree shows a stable upward trend during the future period of 2018-2025 and a transition to a good coordinated development level by 2025. However, the results do not show a transition to a high-quality coordinated development level. Therefore, Shanghai should continue to develop its resource utilization efficiency and improve the coordinated development space of the city.
Water use intensity and water demand prediction of Xiongan New Area under different development scenarios
LÜ Lianghua, JIANG Beilei, GENG Leihua, ZHANG Haibin, YU Xinxing
2021, (1): 18-25.   doi: 10.12170/2020040100
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 749KB](1)
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The Xiongan New Area is still in the planning and construction stage, and there are uncertainties about future development scenarios. Predicting the possible water use intensity and water demand under different development scenarios is of great significance for guiding the construction and development of the Xiongan New Area and achieving sustainable use of water resources. The development scenarios of the Xiongan New Area were generalized from three perspectives: the socio-economic development pattern, the water use efficiency pattern, and the eco-environment development pattern. Based on the “Planning Outline for the Xiongan New Area of Hebei Province”, the short- and long-term water use intensity and related socio-economic indicators of the New Area under different development scenarios were predicted by referring to the water use efficiency and socio-economic development indicators in recent years of the domestic new districts and advanced cities at home and abroad. The quota method was used to predict the short- and long-term domestic, industrial and agricultural water demand, and the Tennant method and the quota method were used to predict the short- and long-term eco-environmental water demand inside and outside the river in the New Area. The total water demand for different development scenarios in the year 2022 and 2035 are 0.8~1.0 and 0.9~1.2 billion cubic meters, respectively. While focusing on socio-economic development and eco-environmental protection, strict control of water use intensity can keep the total water consumption to a relatively low level of 0.8~0.9 billion cubic meters. Strictly controlling the water use intensity, and taking various measures to improve water use efficiency are important for the New Area to control the total water consumption and achieve sustainable use of water resources.
Study on rainstorm waterlogging on urban community scale based on rainstorm scenario simulation
SHI Xiaofang, ZHAO Mingjie, YANG Qingqing, ZHANG Feifei, WU Yanjuan, GAO Chao
2021, (1): 26-35.   doi: 10.12170/20200914001
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 4131KB](3)
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Under the background of global warming, urban torrential rains and waterlogging disasters frequently occur, especially affecting the eastern coastal cities. According to the classification of the disaster-causing factors of the rainstorm and waterlogging, based on the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model), a typhoon and non-typhoon rain scenario waterlogging response simulation model was constructed in the Ningbo area, and the characteristics of typhoon rain waterlogging and non-typhoon rain waterlogging were compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Typhoon and non-typhoon rains have significant differences in change trend, distribution characteristics, and time history distribution. (2) In the typhoon rain scenario, the water level and flow of the river are mainly affected by the tide level, and backflow occurs at the high tide level. In the non-typhoon rain scenario, the river level and flow are mainly affected by rainfall and increase with the increase of the return period. (3) In typhoon and non-typhoon rain scenarios, the number and level of sub-catchments where waterlogging occurs in the study area increase with the increase of the return period, and the water accumulation areas are distributed from scattered to continuous, with a maximum of 17 sub-catchments waterlogging occurring in the area, accounting for 80% of the total waterlogging area. In a typhoon rain scenario with the same return period, the drainage pipe network has a higher load rate, a greater node flood, a heavier waterlogging, a longer duration of water accumulation, reaching more than 10.7 hours and a deeper depth of water accumulation exceeding 67 cm . This study enriches the methods of rainstorm flooding research and provides a reference for community scale waterlogging research.
Application of semipartial subtraction set pair potential method to the dynamic assessment of regional drought risk
JIN Juliang, ZHAO Xingyue, CUI Yi, ZHOU Yuliang, CHEN Menglu, NING Shaowei
2021, (1): 36-44.   doi: 10.12170/20200901005
[Abstract](64) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 1016KB](7)
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To gain the insights into uncertainty issues between evaluation samples and standards of dynamic drought risk assessment, we put forward a novel connection number accompanying function based on semipartial subtraction set pair potential, and constructed a dynamic regional drought risk assessment model built upon semipartial subtraction set pair potential (SSSPP), followed by its application to the dynamic drought risk assessment and vulnerability factor identification of Suzhou city in 2007—2017. The results show that the comprehensive drought risk level of Suzhou city was above level 2 basically, in the partial danger state, while the levels in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were in a partial negative potential (high dangerous years), judged by the SSSPP method. Drought vulnerability indicators of Suzhou city identified were: index of relative wetting degree, relative humidity, soil type, soil water content, rate of cultivated land per unit area, proportion of agricultural population, reservoir storage rate and water status quo of water supply capacity per unit area, emergency ability per unit area, and water saving irrigation index evaluation. Eleven indicators mentioned above were the objects that need to be further regulated to improve the drought risk level in Suzhou.
Discussion on ecological construction scheme for navigation recovery in the lower Yellow River
ZHANG Jinliang, ZHANG Yuansheng, LIAN Jijian, AN Cuihua
2021, (1): 45-52.   doi: 10.12170/20200117001
[Abstract](78) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 6772KB](8)
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The key issues, such as sediment accumulation, wandering river regime and the obstruction of water-related projects, are of great significance of restricting the construction of ecological waterway in the lower Yellow River. After the analysis with measured data, calculation with mathematical model and comprehensive analysis, it is believed that the minimum back-full discharge in the lower Yellow River has already reached 4,300 m3/s, the water surface width corresponding to the minimum navigable volume has reached 120~200 m and water depth has reached 1.0~2.5 m since the operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. Along with the completion and combined application of water-sediment regulating system in the future, a middle-water-level river channel of about 4,000 m3/s will be maintained in a relatively long time, with a certain condition for navigations. It is proposed that with the operation of Guxian Reservoir and Dongzhuang Reservoir and the construction of ecological corridor in the lower Yellow River, an ecological waterway in compliance with Class Ⅳ waterway standard (Class Ⅲ at some sections) and with a length of about 800 km can be formed by virtue of ecological dredging works as a middle-water-level navigable river channel, through regulation of wandering river reaches and ecological reconstruction to remove navigation-hampering structures. It is suggested to promote and accelerate the construction of the ecological waterway in the lower Yellow River under the principles of “unified arrangement, step by step, dredging before navigation and gradual improvement”.
Resilience evaluation of sponge city based on relative difference function
FENG Feng, JIN Xiaoying, LIU Cui, FENG Yuehua
2021, (1): 53-61.   doi: 10.12170/20200318002
[Abstract](71) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 964KB](0)
Abstract:
Aiming at the comprehensive evaluation of sponge city water system, based on the concept of engineering elasticity, we construct a resilient index system with 17 factors from four dimensions: ecological, engineering, natural and social resilience. Based on the fuzzy variable evaluation model of the relative difference function, the five levels (very strong, strong, medium, weak and very weak) of the resilience thresholds corresponding to the 17 indicators are explained and defined. We take Kaifeng as the research example to evaluate and calculate, and the result shows: the water system resilience classified as Ⅴ in 2013, 2014 and 2015 suggests that Kaifeng water system has a very weak resilience; that as Ⅳ in 2016 and 2017 shows a medium resilience. In addition, the change trend of relative membership coverage of 17 indicators in 2013 and 2017 was analyzed and compared with the construction effect of Kaifeng sponge city, showing that the evaluation results are highly concordant with the actual situation, thus an obvious resilient enhancement process was found. Through the example verification, we have established a reasonable evaluation system and elastic threshold, aiming at the evaluation area of mesoscale, to determine the corresponding relative membership degree through the index information, so as to obtain accurate evaluation results, and provide reliable data support and theoretical basis for the sponge city to improve the resilience of its water system.
Assessment of typhoons in ERA-Interim and ERA-5 reanalysis datasets
LI Jiangxia, HU Yuzhi
2021, (1): 62-69.   doi: 10.12170/20200222001
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1263KB](6)
Abstract:
Based on two of the most commonly used parameters in ocean hydrodynamic simulation, i.e. 10 m wind speed and sea level pressure, we obtained the typhoon centres, maximum wind speeds and central air pressures from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis dataset and the most recently released ERA-5 reanalysis dataset, and used them to evaluate their representation of typhoons in the northwest Pacific region from 2013 to 2015. The results indicate that there are differences in the locations of the typhoon centres provided by the ECMWF reanalysis wind data and the measurement data. When the typhoon intensity decreases, the bias in the location of the typhoon centre in the ECMWF data increases. The maximum wind speed of typhoons in the reanalysis data is lower than that in the measurement data, whereas the central air pressure is higher. Although the precision of ERA-5 wind data is greatly improved for the simulation of typhoons from that of the ERA-I data, it is still not sufficiently accurate in the description of typhoon intensity in the northwest Pacific Ocean, which is underestimated. When the typhoon intensity increases, this underestimation is more obvious. In this study, we established an empirical correlation between the maximum wind speed of typhoons in ERA-5 and best-track data. On this basis, the ERA-5 data can be improved using a direct modification method without the requirement for observed typhoon track data. After validation based on the measured wind speed, the modified ERA-5 reanalysis data during the typhoon period was confirmed to have greatly improved accuracy compared to the original data.
Numerical simulation on surge due to landfall of typhoon in the Yangtze Estuary: Ampil (No. 1810) as an example
ZHOU Caiyang, YIN Chengtuan, ZHANG Weisheng, XIONG Mengjie, ZHANG Jinshan
2021, (1): 70-77.   doi: 10.12170/20200525002
[Abstract](25) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 4564KB](5)
Abstract:
Typhoon Ampil, with limited magnitude of storm surge, is the most powerful tropical cyclone making landfall in the Yangtze Estuary since 1990. Based on the global atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim, a high-resolution nested numerical model, coupled with storm surge and astronomical tide, is established to study the features of the storm surge induced by Typhoon Ampil, as well as the cause in the Yangtze Estuary. The results show that the storm surge is mainly distributed in the north branch of the Yangtze Estuary while an obvious set-down process is observed in the south branch after the landfall. The landing location of the typhoon clarifies the difference in surge patterns between the north and south branches. Besides the effect of the onshore wind of the gradient wind field, the translation wind has a greater impact on the surge on the right side of the typhoon track and is found to increase the average magnitude of the surge by an additional 26.8% along the coast of the Lianxinggang gauge station in ebb tide conditions. Apart from the intensity, the typhoon track is also one of the important factors affecting the magnitude of the storm surge in the Yangtze Estuary.
Current situations of thermal insulation and ice resistance technology of dam concrete in China under cold environment
ZHAO Chengxian, SUN Hongyao, LUO Jianhua, LI Hongxin, PAN Xuyong, PEI Chengyuan
2021, (1): 78-85.   doi: 10.12170/20200106003
[Abstract](46) [FullText HTML](23) [PDF 1225KB](0)
Abstract:
During the construction of dams with mass volume concrete, the higher temperature difference between the inside and outside of concrete will cause the cracking of concrete. During the operation of dams under cold environment, the freezing and thawing process of ice will cause the expansion and cracking of concrete. Therefore, temporary thermal insulation measures must be taken when pouring the concrete, and permanent thermal insulation measures must be taken when operating the dam. Since the thrust force, shear force and drawing force in the process of water icing will damage the thermal insulation materials at the upstream of the dam, ice resistance measures are indispensable. This paper reviews the current situations of thermal insulation and ice resistant technology of domestic concrete dams under the cold environment from the aspects of insulation materials, ice resistant technology, application cases and survey results. It is concluded that foam plastics are used as temporary thermal insulation materials, and polystyrene and polyurethane foam plastics are used as permanent insulation materials for the dam. Anti-ice devices and coatings or mortar coated on the surface of insulation materials are used to resist ice damage, but the ice resistant technology is still in infancy by now. At last, this paper puts forward the existing problems and the contents to be further studied in current thermal insulation and ice resistance technology of dams.
Different filter design criteria and their applications to reservoir design in mountainous areas of southern Ningxia
YANG Peiyao, WANG Hongyu, ZHANG Gang, HE Jinsha
2021, (1): 86-94.   doi: 10.12170/20191227001
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 1037KB](0)
Abstract:
Seepage is one of the main causes of embankment dam failures, whereas the seepage failures in hydraulic structure can be prevented by reasonable installation of filter layers. For the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of protective filters for the loess base soils by using different filter design criteria, and finding out an appropriate one for the hydraulic structures in the loess hilly mountainous area, this paper takes the embankment dam filter system of Qiaojiagou reservoir in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia as an example. Four different grading curves were chosen from those paralleled grading curves within the upper and lower envelope of the actual filter material grading curves, whereby the characteristic particle sizes of the these curves and base soil curves were calculated. Then seven filter design criteria were applied to these grading curves and their applicability to the project was analyzed. The results show that with respect to the silty clayey loess acting as protected base soil, the current Chinese filter design criteria Design Code for Rolled Earth-Rock Fill Dams (SL 274—2001) has a broad application range and an excellent performance within the upper and lower envelope of the grading curve of the filter material in Qiaojiagou reservoir project, meanwhile the filtering and draining conditions are satisfied well.
Prediction of hydraulic concrete degradation based on gray residual GM (1,1)-Markov model
KANG Chuntao, GONG Li, WANG Zhonghui, YANG Yiqun, WANG Hong
2021, (1): 95-103.   doi: 10.12170/20200228002
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 874KB](0)
Abstract:
The hydraulic concrete buildings in northwest China are often affected by low temperature frost and salt erosion, so the study of concrete deterioration prediction is of great significance to the life prediction of hydraulic buildings. In order to simulate the damage of hydraulic concrete buildings, the salt freezing test of the concrete test piece was carried out by laboratory method, and the quality and pressure strength with increase of the salt freezing times under 4 kinds of conditions were obtained. The two of these conditions were extracted from the study as the original data. Firstly, we processed these data by the gray residual GM (1,1) model, and established the prediction model. Then, we obtained the correction value of mass and pressure strength by the prediction model. Finally, we predicted the quality and pressure resistance of 150 to 200 salt freezing tests by the gray residual GM (1,1)-Markov model. The results show that the prediction values of quality and pressure strength have less errors than the original values, and in a certain range, the model can be proved to have good effect on the prediction of the deterioration of concrete and the loss of pressure strength.
Analysis on sliding displacement of slope with muddy intercalation considering blasting cumulative damage effect
YAN Changbin, ZHANG Yanchang, CHEN Yanguo, XU Xiao
2021, (1): 104-113.   doi: 10.12170/20200127001
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 1109KB](2)
Abstract:
Repeated blasting vibrations are one of important triggers of landslides, especially those developed on complex rock slopes with muddy intercalation. To reveal the failure mechanism of complex rock slope with muddy intercalation under repeated blasting vibrations, a novel method was proposed to evaluate cumulative sliding displacement and critical blasting times for this type of slopes based on the law of conservation of energy and Newmark sliding block method. In this method, the cumulative damage effects of repeated blast vibrations were characterized through multiple strength reduction factors of muddy intercalation parameters, e.g. shear modulus, dip angle and continuity. The importance of those parameters on slope cumulative sliding displacement was also addressed using sensitivity analysis. The proposed method generally shows more reasonable results regarding estimation of cumulative sliding displacement and critical blasting vibration times. The parameters of muddy intercalation show significant controls on the cumulative sliding displacement of slope under many times of blasting vibration. With the shear modulus increased, the cumulative displacement declines as the slope resistance gets enhanced. Steeper dip angle of muddy intercalation increases the slope displacement of creep section and has no obvious influence on the displacement of shear section. Higher continuity of muddy intercalation induces larger cumulative sliding displacement as expected. The sensitivity analysis results show that the cumulative sliding displacement under repeated blasting vibrations is influenced by shear modulus, followed by dip angle and continuity of muddy intercalation.
A study on mechanism and process of Yagong toppling fracture in the upper reaches of Lancang River
LI Ming, TU Guoxiang, LUO Xinping, SHANG Qi
2021, (1): 114-123.   doi: 10.12170/20200304002
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 1832KB](1)
Abstract:
Deep-seated toppling deformation of steep stratified rock mass is a commonly-seen geological phenomenon in deeply incised valleys in Southwest China. Primarily contributing to this is severe valley downcutting in the wake of uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau since the Quaternary period. In the present paper, taking the case study on the Yagong toppling fracture in the upper reaches of Lancang River as an example, bottom-friction gravity test and numerical calculation were employed to probe into the mechanism and process of how such toppling fracture has formed during valley downcutting. The study has drawn conclusions mainly as follows: the side slope moved along with the valley while downcutting; rock mass loaded off and the field of stress of side slope was re-distributed; a deep-seated area of stress relaxation took shape in the rock mass; and the direction of primary stress re-aligned with gravity direction, under the effect of which deep-seated stratified rock mass in the area of stress relaxation was made topple and deformed towards the valley. The study, on the basis of physical testing features and numerical analysis results, finally concludes that the evolution of such toppling and deformation has the stage of unloading-rebound tension fracture, the stage of deformation-crack development, and the stage of fracture-crack penetration.
Research on the slope stability of seasonally running canals
ZHU Rui, HUANG Yinghao, ZHANG Chen, GUO Wanli, CHEN Hao
2021, (1): 124-132.   doi: 10.12170/20200302002
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 1302KB](10)
Abstract:
The wetting-drying process caused by seasonally running of canals can significantly reduce the strength of expansive soil below the canal structure, thereby affecting the stability of expansive soil canal. Taking the typical expansive soil canal in North Xinjiang as an example, the mechanical properties and the development characteristics of surface cracks of expansive soil below the canal structure were studied in the direct shear laboratory with wetting-drying cycles. On this basis, the numerical calculation of the canal slope stability during the water-level falling period was carried out. The results show that with the increase of wet-dry cycles, the cracks on the surface of the tested soil samples are growing and gradually stabilized after a certain number of cycles. The cohesion of the samples decreases significantly, while the internal friction angle decreases in a small fluctuating manner. After five wetting-drying cycles, the cohesion and internal friction angle decreased by 36.5%~48.2% and 26.1%~10.8%, respectively. Additionally, with the increase of running years (wetting-drying cycles), the canal slope stability decreased year by year. The drainage time also has a significant effect on the canal slope stability. The longer the drainage time is, the higher the canal slope stability is. It is suggested that the drainage time of the expansive soil canal slope would better be more than 12 days, and the interval between diagnosis and maintenance would better be no longer than 5 years. The research results have a certain reference value for the construction and maintenance of water supply projects in Xinjiang.
Dynamic mechanical properties and failure criteria of concrete under true triaxial stress
XU Yuanyuan, PENG Gang, WANG Qianfeng, XIAO Shuluan, LI Wei, PENG Zhujun
2021, (1): 133-141.   doi: 10.12170/20200305003
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 1337KB](1)
Abstract:
The true triaxial compression tests under different stress ratios and different loading rates are conducted to study the static and dynamic mechanical properties of concrete structures under complex stress conditions. The variations of concrete’s compressive strength and deformation characteristics are examined in depth. Based on the octahedral stress space, the true triaxial dynamic failure criterion of the concrete considering the rate effect is established. The results show that the ultimate compressive strength of concrete under true triaxial compression increases with the increase of stress ratio. At lower stress ratio, the ultimate compressive strength of concrete gradually increases with the increase of strain rate; at higher stress ratio, the ultimate compressive strength of concrete decreases firstly and then increases. The deformation on the lateral compression surface changes from compression failure to tensile failure in a shorter time with the increasing strain rate, and the deformation becomes smaller and smaller in the direction of greater lateral pressure with the increasing strain ratio. The expression of the true triaxial dynamic failure criterion based on the octahedral stress space contains three rate-effect parameters, which is verified to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
2021, (1): 142-142.  
[Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 422KB](3)
Abstract:
2021, (1): 143-143.  
[Abstract](22) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 397KB](5)
Abstract:
Advances in studies of tailing dam break mechanism and process
ZHAO Tian-long, CHEN Sheng-shui
2015, (1): 105-111.  
[Abstract](2227) [PDF 945KB](1332)
Change law and cause analysis of water resources and water consumption in China in past 20 years
LIU Jing, BAO Zhenxin, LIU Cuishan, WANG Guoqing, LIU Yue, WANG Jie, GUAN Xiaoxiang
2019, (4): 31-41.   doi: 10.16198/j.cnki.1009-640X.2019.04.005
[Abstract](316) [FullText HTML](196) [PDF 6173KB](15)
Analysis of three-dimensional numerical simulation methods for turbulent flow past circular cylinder
QIAO Yong-liang, GUI Hong-bin, LIU Xiang-xin
2016, (3): 119-125.  
[Abstract](1207) [PDF 1368KB](1009)
Comprehensive assessment of plain reservoir health based on fuzzy and hierarchy analyses
YUE Qiang, LIU Fu-sheng, LIU Zhong-qiu
2016, (2): 62-68.  
[Abstract](1190) [PDF 873KB](559)
Analysis of dam-break flood based on HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS
HE Juan, WANG Xiao-song
2015, (6): 112-116.  
[Abstract](1038) [PDF 679KB](1141)
Effects of granite powder fineness and addition on concrete microscopic pores
ZHAO Jing-hui, LIU Fu-sheng, WEI Mei, CHENG Ming
2016, (2): 39-45.  
[Abstract](943) [PDF 1290KB](469)
Research progress and application of floating breakwater
SHEN Yu-sheng, ZHOU Yi-ren, PAN Jun-ning, WANG Xing-gang
2016, (5): 124-132.  
[Abstract](1365) [PDF 1310KB](595)
Analysis of runoff change trend and its attribution in Haihe River basin
ZHANG Liru, HE Yonghui, TANG Liru, WANG Guoqing
2017, (4): 59-66.   doi: 10.16198/j.cnki.1009-640X.2017.04.009
[Abstract](1005) [FullText HTML](44) [PDF 1360KB](388)
Study on evolvement law of urban flood disasters in China under urbanization
LIU Yang, FAN Ziwu, XIE Chen, LIU Guoqing, FEI Xiangbo
2018, (2): 10-18.   doi: 10.16198/j.cnki.1009-640X.2018.02.002
[Abstract](524) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 9876KB](606)
Understanding and thinking of smart water conservancy
ZHANG Jianyun, LIU Jiufu, JIN Junliang
2019, (6): 1-7.   doi: 10.16198/j.cnki.1009-640X.2019.06.001
[Abstract](1597) [FullText HTML](1070) [PDF 819KB](100)

Supervisor:Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor:Nanjing Academy of Water Conservancy Sciences

Editor-in-Chief:Li Yun

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Tel:025-85829135

Email:jnhri@nhri.cn

ISSN:1009-640X

CN:32-1613/TV

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