Due to the long-term erosion of marine engineering by sea water, water molecules containing corrosive media infiltrate into concrete, making steel bars prone to chloride corrosion, causing structural expansion and cracking, which greatly reduces the service life of marine engineering. With the acceleration of marine engineering construction, the use of cement-based conductive composite materials for chlorine removal and corrosion protection has gradually received attention. Conductive composite materials were prepared by adding conductive materials into cement-based materials. Based on the study of mechanical properties and conductive properties of materials, we explored the effects of different dosages of polymer emulsion and conductive fillers, and cement-sand ratio on the dechlorination performance of materials. The influence mechanism of conductive fillers and polymer emulsion on the performance of materials was analyzed by SEM scanning analysis, and the mechanism of dechlorination and anticorrosion of materials was explored. The results show that the chloride ion content in the material can be significantly reduced by adding suitable conductive filler and polymer emulsion after 60 V DC piezoelectric infiltration for 180 min, and the chlorine removal efficiency is 84.24% higher than that of the specimen without conductive filler. The research results provide reference for reducing steel corrosion in marine concrete and improving service life.