The area of yellow tide soil (YTS) and lime concretion black soil (LCBS) accounts for 87% of the total area of the Northern Anhui Plain, and the LCBS contains calcareous nodules inside, which seriously affect the soil properties and thus reduce the yield. Therefore, in the study, the differences between the two soils were investigated in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, soil hydraulics parameters and soil moisture, and the driving factors affecting the variability of soil moisture in YTS and LCBS were analyzed together with hydro-meteorological factors. The results show that the pH and bulk weight of YTS and LCBS are significantly different, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and alkaline solution nitrogen are not significantly different; the effective water holding capacity of YTS from 0 to 50 cm is significantly larger than that of LCBS, and the water retention is better. Soil water of YTS gradually decreases with increasing depth; soil water of LCBS gradually increases with increasing depth. The main drivers affecting soil water variation in YTS are groundwater depth of burial and rainfall; the main drivers affecting soil water variation in LCBS are ground temperature, groundwater depth of burial and relative humidity. This study can provide a reference for improving the soil properties of LCBS and enhancing crop yield.