The research on the characteristics of water increase along the sea crossing transportation facilities under the action of storm surge is of great significance to the disaster prevention and mitigation and structural safety assessment during the operation and maintenance period of transportation projects. Based on the measured typhoon data from 1951 to 2020, the variation characteristics of typhoon parameters in different ranges centered on Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge are statistically analyzed. It is found that the annual average number of typhoons, the maximum wind speed of typhoons and the minimum pressure in the center of typhoons in the waters near the Pearl River Estuary have not changed significantly since 1951. The storm surge mathematical model in the Western Pacific is established, and the characteristic values of storm surge in different areas along the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge are calculated. The research shows that the storm surge of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge gradually decreases from west to East. The 200 years storm surge at the Zhuhai-Macao artificial island on the west side of the bridge is 3.17 m, the 50 years is 2.31 m, and the 200 years storm surge at the East-West artificial island is about 2.30 m, and the 50 years is about 1.70 m. The research results can provide technical support for the safety assessment of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge during operation and maintenance period.