侯效锋,张士辰,王建. 水库大坝突发事件应急演练技术研究与实践综述[J]. 水利水运工程学报,2024.. doi: 10.12170/20230323002
引用本文: 侯效锋,张士辰,王建. 水库大坝突发事件应急演练技术研究与实践综述[J]. 水利水运工程学报,2024.. doi: 10.12170/20230323002
(HOU Xiaofeng, ZHANG Shichen, WANG Jian. Reviewing research and practice on emergency drill technology for reservoir dam emergencies[J]. Hydro-Science and Engineering, 2024(in Chinese)). doi: 10.12170/20230323002
Citation: (HOU Xiaofeng, ZHANG Shichen, WANG Jian. Reviewing research and practice on emergency drill technology for reservoir dam emergencies[J]. Hydro-Science and Engineering, 2024(in Chinese)). doi: 10.12170/20230323002

水库大坝突发事件应急演练技术研究与实践综述

Reviewing research and practice on emergency drill technology for reservoir dam emergencies

  • 摘要: 水库大坝突发事件应急演练是熟悉和校正应急预案、提升应急响应能力的重要手段,目前应急演练多关注险情应急处置工程措施,而对应急响应与处置过程中的洪水预报、险情捕捉与报告、信息流转、应急决策、现场处置、应急撤离等离散性环节缺少演练,演练效果评估方法缺失,开展应急演练新技术研究十分必要。在分析水库突发事件特点基础上,对国内外应急演练技术研究与实践现状进行了系统梳理,提出了考虑应急响应与处置离散性过程的水库突发事件应急演练技术路线。研究认为,水库突发事件应急演练技术可分角色、灾害类型、响应等级、预警时间和处置形式解析应急响应与处置机制;以时间为主线、角色为主体、事件发展为驱动力,建立应急演练框架体系;构建应急演练评价方法和技术标准,形成标准化的应急演练和评估模型;基于BPMN技术、可视化等技术开发信息化平台,对应急管理各主要环节模拟现实设定阻碍,输出角色和应急演练整体定量评估结果,从而达到有效应急演练目的。

     

    Abstract: Emergency drills for reservoir dams are essential for familiarizing personnel with emergency plans, improving response capabilities, and enhancing overall emergency management. However, current emergency drills primarily focus on the engineering aspects of emergency response, neglecting crucial components such as flood forecasting, incident reporting, information flow, decision-making, on-site operations, and evacuation procedures. Moreover, the evaluation methods for drill effectiveness are lacking. Therefore, there is a need to explore new technologies for emergency drills. This paper systematically reviews the research and practices of emergency drill technology for reservoir dams, both domestically and internationally. It proposes a technical framework considering the discrete nature of emergency response and disposal, based on an analysis of reservoir emergency characteristics. The proposed framework analyzes the emergency response and disposal mechanisms based on factors such as roles, types of disasters, response levels, early warning time, and disposal methods. It establishes an emergency drill framework system with time as the main axis, roles as the central focus, and event development as the driving force. Additionally, the paper constructs an evaluation method and technical standards for emergency drills, aiming to establish a standardized model for conducting and evaluating emergency drills. Leveraging BPMN technology and visualization techniques, an information platform is developed to simulate key aspects of emergency management and provide comprehensive quantitative evaluation results for roles and emergency drills. The ultimate goal is to achieve effective emergency drills and enhance preparedness.

     

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